Carl Jung(1875 -1961) Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist who founded analytic psychology, in some aspects a response to Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis.
Jung’s work has been influential in the fields of psychiatry, anthropology, archaeology, literature, philosophy and religious studies. Jung worked as a research scientist at the famous Burghölzli hospital, under Eugen Bleuler.
During this time, he came to the attention of Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. The two men conducted a lengthy correspondence and collaborated, for a while, on a joint vision of human psychology.
Freud saw the younger Jung as the heir he had been seeking to take forward his “new science” of psychoanalysis and to this end secured his appointment as President of his newly founded International Psychoanalytical Association.
Jung’s research and personal vision, however, made it impossible for him to follow his older colleague’s doctrine and a schism became inevitable.
This division was personally painful for Jung and resulted in the establishment of Jung’s analytical psychology as a comprehensive system separate from psychoanalysis.
Among the central concepts of analytical psychology is individuation—the lifelong psychological process of differentiation of the self out of each individual’s conscious and unconscious elements. Jung considered it to be the main task of human development.
Jung created some of the best known psychological concepts, including synchronicity, archetypal phenomena, the collective unconscious, the psychological complex and extraversion and introversion.
Jung was also an artist, craftsman and builder as well as a prolific writer. Many of his works were not published until after his death and some are still awaiting publication.
Keith Haring(1958 -1990) American graphic artist and designer who popularized some of the strategies and impulses of graffiti art.
Haring, with fellow artists Kenny Scharf and Jean-Michel Basquiat, immersed himself in the punk clubs and street art scene of New York.
In 1981 he began drawing graffiti—unauthorized chalk drawings on blank black advertising panels—in the New York subways. These would eventually number in the thousands, and they quickly created a popular following for his lively figural and patterned imagery and his cheekily outlaw activity.
Haring shared few of the “tagging” tactics of urban graffitists, being drawn instead to the possibilities of a new public and vernacular kind of signage.
Haring began making large outdoor murals, eventually executing them in Rio de Janeiro, Berlin, Melbourne, Chicago, Atlanta, and elsewhere, often assisted by scores of children.
Haring’s ebullient personality, infectious sense of play, and universally understood hieroglyphic style brought him attention from the mainstream press and transferred easily into his work in music videos and fashion design.
In 1986 Haring opened a store called the Pop Shop in New York City, where he marketed products that ranged from T-shirts and pin-on buttons to original prints. He opened a Tokyo branch of the shop in 1988.
Haring’s imagery has “become a widely recognized visual language”. His later work often addressed political and societal themes—especially homosexuality and AIDS—through his own iconography.
Haring was socially conscious, and his murals often reflected his position on social issues. He sought to raise awareness of AIDS and fought against the proliferation of illegal drugs. He died of complications of AIDS at age 31.
In 2014 Haring was one of the inaugural honourees in the Rainbow Honor Walk, a walk of fame in San Francisco’s Castro neighbourhood noting LGBTQ people who have “made significant contributions in their fields.”
In June 2019, Haring was one of the inaugural fifty American “pioneers, trailblazers, and heroes” inducted on the National LGBTQ Wall of Honour within the Stonewall National Monument (SNM) in New York City’s Stonewall Inn.
Michael Jordan(1963 -) an American businessman and former professional basketball player. He is the principal owner and chairman of the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball Association (NBA) and of 23XI Racing in the NASCAR Cup Series.
Jordan played 15 seasons in the NBA, winning six championships with the Chicago Bulls. His biography on the official NBA website states:
“By acclamation, Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time.”
Jordan was integral in helping to popularize the NBA around the world in the 1980s and 1990s, becoming a global cultural icon in the process.
Jordan played college basketball for three seasons under coach Dean Smith with the North Carolina Tar Heels. As a freshman, he was a member of the Tar Heels’ national championship team in 1982.
Jordan joined the Bulls in 1984 as the third overall draft pick, and quickly emerged as a league star, entertaining crowds with his prolific scoring while gaining a reputation as one of the game’s best defensive players.
Jordan’s leaping ability, demonstrated by performing slam dunks from the free throw line in Slam Dunk Contests, earned him the nicknames “Air Jordan” and “His Airness”.
Jordan won his first NBA championship with the Bulls in 1991, and followed that achievement with titles in 1992 and 1993, securing a “three-peat”.
Jordan abruptly retired from basketball before the 1993–94 NBA season to play Minor League Baseball, but returned to the Bulls in March 1995 and led them to three more championships in 1996, 1997, and 1998, as well as a then-record 72 regular-season wins in the 1995–96 NBA season.
He retired for a second time in January 1999 but returned for two more NBA seasons from 2001 to 2003 as a member of the Washington Wizards.
Jordan was twice inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, once in 2009 for his individual career and again in 2010 as part of the 1992 United States men’s Olympic basketball team (“The Dream Team”). He became a member of the FIBA Hall of Fame in 2015.
Jordan became the first billionaire player in NBA history. With a net worth of $2.1 billion, he is the fourth-richest African American, behind Robert F. Smith, David Steward, and Oprah Winfrey.
Ralph Waldo Emerson(1803 -1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
Emerson was viewed as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States.
Emerson gradually moved away from the religious and social beliefs of his contemporaries, formulating and expressing the philosophy of transcendentalism in his 1836 essay “Nature”.
Following this work, Emerson gave a speech entitled “The American Scholar” in 1837, which Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. considered to be America’s “intellectual Declaration of Independence.”
Emerson wrote most of his important essays as lectures first and then revised them for print.
His first two collections of essays, Essays: First Series (1841) and Essays: Second Series (1844), represent the core of his thinking.
They include the well-known essays “Self-Reliance”, “The Over-Soul”, “Circles”, “The Poet”, and “Experience.”
Together with “Nature”, these essays made the decade from the mid-1830s to the mid-1840s Emerson’s most fertile period.
Emerson wrote on a number of subjects, never espousing fixed philosophical tenets, but developing certain ideas such as individuality, freedom, the ability for mankind to realize almost anything, and the relationship between the soul and the surrounding world.
Emerson’s “nature” was more philosophical than naturalistic: “Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul.” Emerson is one of several figures who “took a more pantheist approach by rejecting views of God as separate from the world.”
He remains among the linchpins of the American romantic movement,and his work has greatly influenced the thinkers, writers and poets that followed him.
“I have taught one doctrine, namely, the infinitude of the private man.”
Daughters of Time, the hypocritic Days, Muffled and dumb like barefoot dervishes, And marching single in an endless file, Bring diadems and fagots in their hands. To each they offer gifts after his will, Bread, kingdoms, stars, or sky that holds them all. I, in my pleached garden, watched the pomp, Forgot my morning wishes, hastily Took a few herbs and apples, and the Day Turned and departed silent. I, too late, Under her solemn fillet saw the scorn.
Matthew Rolston(1955 – ) an American artist, photographer, director and creative director. He is known for his signature lighting techniques and detailed approach to art direction and design and has been repeatedly identified throughout his career with the revival and modern expression of Hollywood glamour.
Rolston studied drawing and painting at the Chouinard Art Institute and Otis College of Art & Design, as well as the San Francisco Art Institute. He also studied illustration, photography, imaging and film at Art Centre College of Design in Pasadena, California, where in 2006, he received an Honorary Doctorate.
While still a student at Art Centre, Rolston was “discovered” by Andy Warhol,for Warhol’s celebrity focused Interview magazine, where he began a successful career in photography.
Soon afterwards, Rolston began shooting covers and editorial assignments for founding editor Jann Wenner of Rolling Stone, as well as for other publications such as Harper’s Bazaar, Vogue, Vanity Fair, W, GQ, Esquire, Cosmopolitan, O: The Oprah Magazine and The New York Times.
Along with Herb Ritts, Rolston was a member of an influential group of photographers, among them, Bruce Weber, Annie Leibovitz and Steven Meisel, to emerge from the 1980’s magazine scene.
Rolston’s career spans the areas of photography, film, creative direction, experiential design (including hospitality development), branding, product design, new media ventures, fine art and publishing.
As Rolston began to redefine the scope of his career, he expanded his practice into the fields of creative direction and branding, developing innovative projects in the area of experiential design, including hospitality projects, product design and new media ventures.
Rolston also conceives, writes and directs film projects, having directed over 100 music videos and 200 television commercials in his career.
Rolston has also created four photographic fine art projects that have led to a series of publications and exhibitions.
Karen E. Quinones Miller(1958 -) is an American journalist, historian, and nationally best-selling author, and community activist.
Miller dropped out of junior high school at the age of 13, and says she spent most of her youth running the streets of Harlem.
Although she was not officially home-schooled, her parents both insisted that she continue her education on her own.
It was through her own reading that her interest in Harlem history was born, as she read novels and poetry by Langston Hughes, Ralph Ellison, Nella Larsen, and Claude McKay.
Tired of the fast life, she joined the U. S. Navy in 1980.
In 1988, she moved to Philadelphia and worked as a secretary for The Philadelphia Daily News.
While there, she wrote letters to the City Editor complaining about what she considered the biased coverage of people of multi ethnic backgrounds. Finally fed up, Miller gave her two-week notice, and enrolled at Temple University to major in journalism.
Miller worked for a year for the Virginian-Pilot in Norfolk, Virginia, then moved back to Philadelphia in 1994 to become a staff writer for the Philadelphia Inquirer.
In 1999, Miller wrote her first novel Satin Doll and self-published the novel. She sold 3,000 copies in six weeks – and ultimately 28,000 copies in eight months – before signing with an agent in June 2000.
Due to the success of Satin Doll a literary auction was held; Simon & Schuster won the publishing rights and a second book.
Miller subsequently published eight books (all of which were based in Harlem) through major publishing houses, but she also maintained her own publishing company – Oshun Publishing Company.
Miller is included in the book Literary Divas: The Top 100+ Most Admired African-American Women in Literature.
In 2013, Miller was one of fifty writers picked by the city of Philadelphia to be recognized in the Philadelphia Literary Legacy project.
Miller is an acknowledged Harlem historian and has been featured in many television programmes.
Maya Angelou(1928 -2014) American poet, memoirist, and actress whose several volumes of autobiography explore the themes of economic, racial, and sexual oppression.
Angelou published seven autobiographies, three books of essays, several books of poetry, and is credited with a list of plays, movies, and television shows spanning over 50 years.
Angelou is best known for her series of seven autobiographies, which focus on her childhood and early adult experiences. The first, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969), tells of her life up to the age of 17 and brought her international recognition and acclaim. With the publication of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, Angelou publicly discussed aspects of her personal traumatic life.
She became a poet and writer after a string of odd jobs during her young adulthood. These included fry cook, sex worker, nightclub performer, Porgy and Bess cast member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference coordinator, and correspondent in Egypt and Ghana during the decolonization of Africa.
Angelou was also an actress, writer, director, and producer of plays, movies, and public television programs.
In 1982, she was named the first Reynolds Professor of American Studies at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
She was active in the Civil Rights Movement and worked with Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X.
Beginning in the 1990s, she made approximately 80 appearances a year on the lecture circuit, something she continued into her eighties.
In 1993, Angelou recited her poem “On the Pulse of Morning” (1993) at the first inauguration of Bill Clinton, making her the first poet to make an inaugural recitation since Robert Frost at the inauguration of John F. Kennedy in 1961.
Angelou was respected as a spokesperson for African American people and women, and her works have been considered a defence of African American culture.
Her works are widely used in schools and universities worldwide, although attempts have been made to ban her books from some US libraries.
Angelou’s most celebrated works have been labeled as autobiographical fiction, but many critics consider them to be autobiographies.
She made a deliberate attempt to challenge the common structure of the autobiography by critiquing, changing and expanding the genre. Her books centre on themes including racism, identity, family and travel.
A Rock, A River, A Tree Hosts to species long since departed, Marked the mastodon, The dinosaur, who left dried tokens Of their sojourn here On our planet floor, Any broad alarm of their hastening doom Is lost in the gloom of dust and ages.
But today, the Rock cries out to us, clearly, forcefully, Come, you may stand upon my Back and face your distant destiny, But seek no haven in my shadow. I will give you no hiding place down here.
You, created only a little lower than The angels, have crouched too long in The bruising darkness Have lain too long Face down in ignorance. Your mouths spilling words
Armed for slaughter. The Rock cries out to us today, you may stand upon me, But do not hide your face.
Across the wall of the world, A River sings a beautiful song. It says, Come, rest here by my side.
Each of you, a bordered country, Delicate and strangely made proud, Yet thrusting perpetually under siege. Your armed struggles for profit Have left collars of waste upon My shore, currents of debris upon my breast. Yet today I call you to my riverside, If you will study war no more. Come, Clad in peace, and I will sing the songs The Creator gave to me when I and the Tree and the rock were one. Before cynicism was a bloody sear across your Brow and when you yet knew you still Knew nothing. The River sang and sings on.
There is a true yearning to respond to The singing River and the wise Rock. So say the Asian, the Hispanic, the Jew The African, the Native American, the Sioux, The Catholic, the Muslim, the French, the Greek The Irish, the Rabbi, the Priest, the Sheik, The Gay, the Straight, the Preacher, The privileged, the homeless, the Teacher. They hear. They all hear The speaking of the Tree.
They hear the first and last of every Tree Speak to humankind today. Come to me, here beside the River. Plant yourself beside the River.
Each of you, descendant of some passed On traveller, has been paid for. You, who gave me my first name, you, Pawnee, Apache, Seneca, you Cherokee Nation, who rested with me, then Forced on bloody feet, Left me to the employment of Other seekers—desperate for gain, Starving for gold. You, the Turk, the Arab, the Swede, the German, the Eskimo, the Scot, You the Ashanti, the Yoruba, the Kru, bought, Sold, stolen, arriving on the nightmare Praying for a dream. Here, root yourselves beside me. I am that Tree planted by the River, Which will not be moved. I, the Rock, I the River, I the Tree I am yours—your passages have been paid. Lift up your faces, you have a piercing need For this bright morning dawning for you. History, despite its wrenching pain Cannot be unlived, but if faced With courage, need not be lived again.
Lift up your eyes upon This day breaking for you. Give birth again To the dream.
Women, children, men, Take it into the palms of your hands, Mold it into the shape of your most Private need. Sculpt it into The image of your most public self. Lift up your hearts Each new hour holds new chances For a new beginning. Do not be wedded forever To fear, yoked eternally To brutishness.
The horizon leans forward, Offering you space to place new steps of change. Here, on the pulse of this fine day You may have the courage To look up and out and upon me, the Rock, the River, the Tree, your country. No less to Midas than the mendicant. No less to you now than the mastodon then.
Here, on the pulse of this new day You may have the grace to look up and out And into your sister’s eyes, and into Your brother’s face, your country And say simply Very simply With hope— Good morning.
Robert Fripp(1946 – ) an English musician, songwriter, and record producer, best known as the guitarist, founder and longest-lasting member of the progressive rock band King Crimson.
Fripp has worked extensively as a session musician and collaborator, notably with David Bowie, Blondie, Brian Eno, Peter Gabriel, Daryl Hall, Midge Ure, Talking Heads, and David Sylvian.
Fripp has also contributed sounds to the Windows Vista operating system.] His discography includes contributions to over 700 official releases.
Fripp is ranked 62nd on Rolling Stone magazine’s 2011 list of the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. Tied with Andrés Segovia, he also is ranked 47th on Gibson’s Top 50 guitarists of all time.
Fripp’s compositions often feature unusual time signatures, which have been influenced by classical and folk traditions. His innovations include a tape delay system known as “Frippertronics” and new standard tuning.
Tupac Amaru Shakur (1971 – 1996), better known by his stage name 2Pac and by his alias Makaveli, was an American rapper and actor.
He is considered by many to be one of the most influential rappers of all time. Much of Shakur’s work has been noted for addressing contemporary social issues that plagued inner cities, and he is considered a symbol of resistance and activism against inequality.
Shakur was born in Manhattan, a borough of New York City, but relocated to the San Francisco Bay Area in 1988.
He moved to Los Angeles in 1993 to further pursue his music career. By the time he released his debut album 2Pacalypse Now in 1991, he had become a central figure in West Coast hip hop, introducing social issues in the genre at a time when gangsta rap was dominant in the mainstream.
Shakur became heavily involved in the growing East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry between 1995 and 1996. His double-disc album All Eyez on Me (1996) became certified Diamond by the RIAA.
On September 7, 1996, Shakur was shot four times by an unknown assailant in a drive-by shooting in Las Vegas.
Five more albums have been released since his death, all of which have been certified platinum in the United States.
Shakur is one of the best-selling music artists of all time having sold over 75 million records worldwide. In 2002, he was inducted into the Hip-Hop Hall of Fame.
In 2017, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility. Rolling Stone named Shakur in its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.
Outside music, Shakur also gained considerable success as an actor, with his starring roles as Bishop in Juice (1992), Lucky in Poetic Justice (1993) where he starred alongside Janet Jackson, Ezekiel in Gridlock’d (1997), and Jake in Gang Related (1997).