Reaching for the Sky – Mathematics in Art – Part 2

Megalithic Temple, Malta, c. 3000 -700 BCE

“Since ancient times artists and architects have seen in the golden mean the most aesthetically satisfying geometric ratio.” 

 Stephen M. Barr

The Pyramids, Egypt, c.2630 BCE

“Geometry has two great treasures: one is the Theorem of Pythagoras; the other, the division of a line into extreme and mean ratio. The first we may compare to a measure of gold; the second we may name a precious jewel.”

Johannes Kepler

The Parthenon, Greece, c. 438 BCE, Image © THINKSTOCK

Previously I offered a brief overview of the role that Phi (Φ) supposedly plays in relation to form and the understanding of creating images. 

Al Khazneh, Petra, Jordan, c. 100 ACE

Frequently some commentators imply that following such a set of mathematical rules is all that is necessary to imbibe the creative process with harmonious elements and can be applied in all circumstances and disciplines.

Leshan Giant Buddha,China, c.713-803 ACE, Image © THINKSTOCK

“The good is always beautiful, and the beautiful never lacks proportion.”

Plato

Sacsaywaman, Peru, c.900-1200 ACE

Many, whether they are artists, architects, musicians or in other creative fields have endeavoured to apply such a concept to their philosophy and thinking as an integral element in their attempts to create a form that is both “beautiful” and harmonious. 

Borobudur, Indonesia, c. 825 ACE, Image © THINKSTOCK

If the ancient architects deliberately included specific mathematical ratios and shapes in their structures it may have had nothing to do with aesthetics, but with a desire to achieve some mystical harmony with nature rather than an aesthetic goal. 

Machu Picchu, Peru, c. 1450 ACE

“[The universe] cannot be read until we have learnt the language and become familiar with the characters in which it is written.”

Galileo Galilei

Taj Mahal, India, 1632

“The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science.”

Albert Einstein

Sagrada Família, Barcelona, Spain, 1882 – to date

Click here to read and view more.

https://goffjamesart.wordpress.com

Image Credit © Megalithic Temple, Malta, c. 3000 -700 BCE

Source Credithttps://www.readersdigest.ca/travel/world/10-architectural-wonders-ancient-world/

Image Credit © The Pyramids, Egypt, c.2630 BCE

Source Credithttps://www.readersdigest.ca/travel/world/10-architectural-wonders-ancient-world/

Image Credit The Parthenon, Greece, c. 438 BCE, Image © THINKSTOCK

Source Credithttps://www.readersdigest.ca/travel/world/10-architectural-wonders-ancient-world/

Image Credit © Al Khazneh, Petra, Jordan, c. 100 ACE

Source Credithttps://www.readersdigest.ca/travel/world/10-architectural-wonders-ancient-world/

Image Credit © Leshan Giant Buddha,China, c.713-803 ACE, Image © THINKSTOCK

Source Credithttps://www.readersdigest.ca/travel/world/10-architectural-wonders-ancient-world/

Image Credit © Sacsaywaman, Peru, c.900-1200 ACE

Source Credithttps://www.readersdigest.ca/travel/world/10-architectural-wonders-ancient-world/

Image Credit © Machu Picchu, Peru, c. 1450 ACE

Source Credithttp://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/architecture/images/Machu-Picchu.jpg

Image Credit © Taj Mahal, India, 1632

Source Credithttps://ancientworldwonders.com/uploads/posts/Taj_Mahal/3_Taj_Mahal.jpg

Image Credit © Sagrada Família, Barcelona, Spain, 1882 – to date

Source Credithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagrada_Fam%C3%ADlia

Mathematics in Art – Lines and shapes or Phi (in the sky)- Part 1.

© Leonardo Da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1494-99

“Without mathematics there is no art,”

Luca Pacioli

© Leonardo da Vinci possibly/Andrea del Verrocchio, c. 1472–1475

Humans observe and experience all the various shapes within our environment by recognizing all of their constructive elements and qualities, engrafting additional impressions and information until an entire concept of any object’s character is fairly complete.

© Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, 1483-85,

As humans survey the environment which surround them there is the capability to frequently compare the ratio of one shape with ratio of another. For example, it can be argued that if one compared the two parts of a divided line or two sides of a satisfying rectangle one would discover that the longer is approximately 1.618 times as long as the shorter. In other words the ratio between is 1.618:1. 

© Michelangelo, The Creation of Adam, 1508-12

Whether one is observing the latest technological invention or the familiarity of pet creature, a comparison of height against width informs one about a part of the the object’s character. It can be expressed in terms of ratio and geometrical lines and shapes.

© Raphael, The School of Athens, 1509 -11

“The negative root of the quadratic equation for φ (the “conjugate root”) is The absolute value of this quantity (≈ 0.618) corresponds to the length ratio taken in reverse order (shorter segment length over longer segment length, b/a), and is sometimes referred to as the golden ratio conjugate. It is denoted here by the capital Phi (Φ):

Alternatively, Φ can be expressed as This illustrates the unique property of the golden ratio among positive numbers, that or its inverse:

This means 0.61803…:1 = 1:1.61803….”

Eric W Weisstein,-“Golden Ratio Conjuagate”

“Since ancient times artists and architects have seen in the golden mean the most aesthetically satisfying geometric ratio.”


Stephen M. Barr

© Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503– 07

Click here to read and view more.

https://goffjamesart.wordpress.com

Image Credit © Leonardo Da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1494-99

Source Credithttps://news.artnet.com/art-world/golden-ratio-in-art-328435

Image Credit © Leonardo da Vinci possibly/Andrea del Verrocchio, c. 1472–1475

Source Credithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annunciation_(Leonardo)#/media/File:Annunciation_(Leonardo)_(cropped).jpg

Image Credit © Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus (1483-85)

Source Credithttps://news.artnet.com/art-world/golden-ratio-in-art-328435

Image Credit © Michelangelo, The Creation of Adam, 1508-12

Source Credithttps://news.artnet.com/art-world/golden-ratio-in-art-328435

Image Credit © © Raphael, The School of Athens, 1509 -11

SourceCredithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_School_of_Athens#/media/File:%22The_School_of_Athens%22_by_Raffaello_Sanzio_da_Urbino.jpg

Image Credit © Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503– 07

SourceCredithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mona_Lisa#/media/File:Mona_Lisa,_by_Leonardo_da_Vinci,_from_C2RMF_retouched.jpg

Form as an extension of creation and content in Art; and, that which lies behind it. What the hell is that then?

“Form is a revelation of essence.” 

Meister Johann Eckhart

Man from Brno,
CzechRepublic,
c.30,000 – 25,000 BCE

“Creation is only the projection into form of that which already exists.” 

The Bhagavad Gita

Stag Hunt, floor mosaic, Pella, Greece, c. 300 BCE

Form within Art, in essence, is delicate and sensitive; and, in so being provides vitality to the mode, context, content and particular needs of the artist. If form remains so and critically obeys the criteria undertaken an astonishing realism and expressive freedom can be captured. 

Bodhisattva Padmapani (detail), Cave 1, Ajanta, India, c.700 ACE

Form can be mathematically precise if its primary goal and virtues are to encapsulate simplicity, balanced design, outline clarity and clear organized compositional arrangement.

 Dish, East Persia, c. 1000 ACE

Imagine for a moment that one is trekking over a vast expanse of desert terrain which expands outward and away from one and stretching as far as one can see. In the far distance an object emerges and appears at the edge of the horizon. 

It is dusk and in the enveloping evening darkness one is unable to identify what the image is, observe its true outline shape, colour, its textured surface or from which material it might be constructed from.

Since there are no other objects within this particular sparse environment, such as trees or people and one doesn’t know how far away it is; one is unable to make judgements with regard to its size. 

Henry Moore, Animal Head, 1951

However, in spite of this, a part of the object’s elemental character will have impressed itself into the psyche and one will have been enabled to make comparisons with regard to its height relative to its width.

As one approaches the the object and increasingly recognizes all of its constructive elements and qualities, one can engraft additional impressions and information until the entire concept of the object’s character is fairly complete. 

However one’s original impression – comparison of height with width – will have conveyed an important part of the object’s character.

Pieter Brueghel The Elder,The Harvesters, 1565 ACE

Artists whether they be Realists or Abstractionists create artistic forms that embrace or challenge individual viewer’s experiences and expectations.

Jackson Pollock, autumn Rhythm (Number 30), 1950 ACE

“Painting around an object will help one look at ones subjects in a new way – as shapes and spaces…”

Mary Todd Beam

Paul Klee, Sunset, 1930

“When the whole and the parts are seen at once, as mutually producing and explaining each other, as unity in multeity, there results shapeliness.” 

Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Arshile Gorky, Betrothal 1, 1947

Click here to read and view more.

https://goffjamesart.wordpress.com

Image Credit © Man from Brno, Czech Republic, c.30,000 – 25,000 BCE

Source Credithttps://linipin1486.files.wordpress.com/2015/07/screen-shot-2015-07-07-at-20-11-58.png

Image Credit © Stag Hunt, floor mosaic, Pella, Greece, c. 300 BCE

Source Credithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stag_Hunt_Mosaic#/media/File:Deer_hunt_mosaic_from_Pella.jpg

Image Credit © Bodhisattva Padmapani (detail), Cave 1, Ajanta, India, c.700 ACE

Source Credithttps://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-asia/south-asia/buddhist-art2/a/the-caves-of-ajanta

Image Credit ©  Dish, East Persia, c. 1000 ACE

SourceCredithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_art#/media/File:Iran_orientale_o_asia_centrale,_coppa,_x_sec_02.JPG

Image Credit © Henry Moore, Animal Head, 1951

Source Credithttps://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/moore-animal-head-t02271

Image Credit © Pieter Brueghel The Elder,The Harvesters, 1565 ACE

SourceCredithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Harvesters_(painting)#/media/File:Pieter_Bruegel_the_Elder-_The_Harvesters_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Image Credit © Paul Klee, Sunset, 1930

Source Credithttps://www.artic.edu/artworks/61608/sunset

Image Credit © Arshile Gorky, Betrothal 1, 1947

Source Credithttps://www.moca.org/collection/work/betrothal-i-2

Form as an extension of content within Art

© Augustus Edwin John, David and Dorelia in Normandy, 1908

“Form is sometimes considered a mere spice added by the artist to the representation of objects in order to make it pleasurable.”

Rudolf Arnheim

© Grant Wood, American Gothic,1930

“Painting around an object will help you look at your subjects in a new way – as shapes and spaces…” 

Mary Todd Beam

© Aleksandr Deyneka, Relay Race Around the Streets of Moscow, 1947

In relation to Art; form, may be defined as possessing two meanings that refer to:

  • the overall form taken by the work – its physical nature; or 
  • within a work the element of shape among the various elements that make up a work.
© Bernard Buffet, Interior, 1950

With the onset of Modern Art colour rivalled form and relegated form’s traditional importance within the genre of painting which was primarily concerned with the human body.

© Alex Katz, West Window, 1979

“In treating or creating form in art the artist aims to modify natural appearances in order to make a new form that is expressive, that is, conveys some sensation or meaning in itself. In modern art the idea grew that form could be expressive even if largely or completely divorced from appearances.”

https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/f/form

© Paula Rego, The Cadet and His Sister, 1988

To achieve this it is frequently necessary to distort; but any artist, of whatever genre, has to be critical of superfluous exaggeration.

© Henry Moore, Reclining Figure, 1951

“A hole can have as much shape meaning as a solid mass”

Henry Moore

© Simone Leigh, Loophole of Retreat, 2018, (The Hugo Boss Prize)

“Art strives for form, and hopes for beauty.” 

George Bellows

© Jaap Eduard Helder, All is Well in Space and Time, 2015

Click here to read more.

https://goffjamesart.wordpress.com

Image Credit © Augustus Edwin John, David and Dorelia in Normandy, 1908

Source Credithttps://artuk.org/discover/artworks/david-and-dorelia-in-normandy-4573

Image Credit © Grant Wood, American Gothic,1930

Source Credithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Gothic#/media/File:Grant_Wood_-_American_Gothic_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Image Credit © Aleksandr Deyneka, Relay Race Around the Streets of Moscow, 1947

Source Credithttps://www.etsy.com/uk/listing/690674325/relay-race-artist-aleksandr-deyneka?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=soviet+athlete+print&ref=sr_gallery-1-3&referring_page_type=market&pro=1

Image Credit © Bernard Buffet, Interior, 1950

Source Credithttps://msusurplusstore.com/catalog/books-media/media/art/interior-by-bernard-buffet-vintage-penn-print/

Image Credit © Alex Katz, West Window, 1979

Source Credithttps://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/katz-west-window-ar00003

Image Credit © Paula Rego, The Cadet and His Sister, 1988

Source Credithttps://theartstack.com/artist/paula-rego/cadet-and-his-sister

Image Credit © Henry Moore, Reclining Figure, 1951

Source Credithttps://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/moore-reclining-figure-t02270

Image Credit © Simone Leigh, Loophole of Retreat, 2018, (The Hugo Boss Prize)

Source Credithttps://www.guggenheim.org/exhibition/hugo-boss-prize-2018?gclid=CjwKCAjwiZnnBRBQEiwAcWKfYr9wfew8-iH0b3BOB3j3U8-qPbGThPMx5sg6nOU35TnthMa4pG2iVBoCeFUQAvD_Bw

Image Credit © Jaap Eduard Helder, All is Well in Space and Time, 2015

Source Credithttps://www.helderart.com/

Reference https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/f/form

Art, Artists and Innovation

© Artist Unknown, The Virgin in the Garden of Paradise, c.1410-20

“Art begins in imitation and ends in innovation” 

Mason Cooley

© Carlo Crivelli, The Annunciation, with Saint Emidius, 1486

“Without tradition, Art is a flock of sheep without a shepherd. Without innovation, it is a corpse.” 

Winston Churchill

© Titian, Bacchus and Ariadne, 1520-3

Art, arguably; has always remained, in the past, mainly within basic defined limits. However it would be isolated and inadequate without a partaker; with, the variety of interpretation and “consumption” being the “Life seed” both of form and Art itself. 

© Caravaggio, Crucifixion of Saint Peter, 1601

Similarly the basic elements of form within Art have remained constant. Paradoxically, Art is in itself dynamic and adaptable due to the fact that artists have always been able to arrange and re-arrange compositional elements in ever-changing relationships and interpretations. 

© Hyacinthe Rigaud, Portrait of Louis XIV, 1701

Art consequently has always been impregnated by the ability of individual artists to; 

  • observe,
  • be aware of their surroundings,
  • perceive,
  • conceptualize,
  • understand context,
  • interpret,
  • make connections and
  • be technically innovative
© Francisco de Goya, The Third of May 1808, 1814

“Artists that will not apply new remedies must expect new evils; for time is the greatest innovator.”

Francis Bacon

© Claude Monet, Impression Sunrise,1872

“…whatever the nature of an artist’s innovation, its importance ultimately depends on the extent of its influence on other artists.” 

David Galenson

© George Braque, Le Portugais (The Emigrant), 1911

Click here to read more.

https://goffjamesart.wordpress.com

Image Credit © Artist Unknown, The Virgin in the Garden of Paradise, c.1410-20

Source Credithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_Rhenish_Master#/media/File:Meister_des_Frankfurter_Paradiesg%C3%A4rtleins_001.jpg

Image Credit © Carlo Crivelli, The Annunciation, with Saint Emidius, 1486

SourceCredithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Annunciation,_with_Saint_Emidius#/media/File:The_Annunciation,_with_Saint_Emidius_-_Carlo_Crivelli_-_National_Gallery.jpg

Image Credit © Titian, Bacchus and Ariadne, 1520-3

Source Credithttps://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/titian-bacchus-and-ariadne

Image Credit © Caravaggio, Crucifixion of Saint Peter, 1601

SourceCredithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crucifixion_of_Saint_Peter_(Caravaggio)#/media/File:Martirio_di_San_Pietro_September_2015-1a.jpg

Image Credit © Hyacinthe Rigaud, Portrait of Louis XIV, 1701

Source Credithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portrait_of_Louis_XIV#/media/File:Louis_XIV_of_France.jpg

Image Credit © Francisco de Goya, The Third of May 1808, 1814

SourceCredithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Third_of_May_1808#/media/File:El_Tres_de_Mayo,_by_Francisco_de_Goya,_from_Prado_thin_black_margin.jpg

Image Credit © Claude Monet, Impression Sunrise,1872

Source Credithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impression,_Sunrise#/media/File:Monet_-_Impression,_Sunrise.jpg

Image Credit © George Braque, Le Portugais (The Emigrant), 1911

Source Credithttps://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-1010/early-abstraction/cubism/a/braque-the-portuguese

Image Credit ©

Source Credit

Vision Is Construction! What the hell does that mean?

© Richard Bergh, Nordic Summer Evening,1900

“Painting is silent poetry….”

Plutarch

© Edward Hopper, Compartment C, Car 283, 1938

“a four second window of opportunity exists for a visual image to attract and hold attention before a viewer’s interest may be lost.” 

Zena O’Connor

© David Hockney, A Bigger Splash, 1967

Consequently, a work of art needs to contain certain basic features – Subject, Composition and Narrative.

© Henry Moore, Recumbent Figure, 1938

The basic design properties of a work of art that may be perceived through the senses are – colour, texture, form, shape, space, line and value (tone).

© Aztec Vulture Vessel, Mexico, c. 1200–1521

Other elements, for instance sound, time and motion may be perceived in other art forms. in the Post Modern era, contemporary art no longer excludes these and they have become part of the overall experience for the viewer. 

© teamLab – Ultra-Technologists

The way the elements of an object relate to each other and are organised in an art piece are referred to as the Principles of Art which can also include balance, proportion, emphasis, variety movement, rhythm and harmony.

© Scott Treleaven, The Pardon, 2015

In abstract art which possesses no recognizable subject matter; the various elements themselves constitute the subject matter. 

© Rachel Whiteread, Untitled, 2010

“Sculpture is not the mere cutting of the form of anything in stone; it is the cutting of the effect of it.” 

 John Ruskin

Jørn Utzon, Sydney Opera House, Australia

“The science of design, or of line-drawing, if you like to use this term, is the source and very essence of painting, sculpture, architecture… Sometimes… it seems … that… all the works of the human brain and hand are either design itself or a branch of that art.” 

Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Spain

Michelangelo

Click here to read and view more.

https://goffjamesart.wordpress.com

Image Credit © Richard Bergh, Nordic Summer Evening,1900

SourceCredithttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bergh_Richard_Nordic_Summer_Evening.jpg

Image Credit © Edward Hopper, Compartment C, Car 283, 1938

Source Credit ©https://www.edwardhopper.net/compartment-c-car.jsp

Image Credit David Hockney, A Bigger Splash, 1967

Source Credithttps://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/hockney-a-bigger-splash-t03254

Image Credit © Henry Moore, Recumbent Figure, 1938

Source Credithttps://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/henry-moore-om-ch-1659/henry-moores-sculptures

Image Credit © Aztec Vulture Vessel, Mexico, c. 1200–1521

Source Credithttps://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1981.297/

Image Credit © teamLab – Ultra-Technologists

Source Credithttps://www.widewalls.ch/installation-artists/yayoi-kusama/

Image Credit © Scott Treleaven, The Pardon, 2015

Source Credithttps://www.artsy.net/artwork/scott-treleaven-the-pardon

Image Credit © Rachel Whiteread, Untitled, 2010

Source Credithttps://www.artsy.net/article/artsy-editorial-the-top-10-sculptors-working-today

Image Credit © Solvarsity, Sydney Opera House, Australia

Source Credit

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney_Opera_House#/media/File:SydneyOperaHouse20182.jpg

Image Credit (Photographer Unstated), Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Spain

Source Credithttps://www.guggenheim-bilbao.eus/en/the-building

Understanding Form In Art

© Nebamun Hunting in the Marshes 18th Dynasty, (Egypt) c. 1350 BCE, British Museum, London

“Order is a necessary condition for anything the human mind is to understand.” 

Rudolf Arnheim

© Villa of the Mysteries Fresco, (Pompeii, Italy), c.60-50 BCE

“We all see the same thing differently. How we express that vision, that feeling, is so personal that few, if any, will be able to fully understand the ‘true story’ behind a given painting.” 

David C. Benjamin

© The Monogram Page, Book of Kells, c. 800 CE, Trinity College Library, Dublin

Form is linear, planetary and universal.

© Andrei Rublev, Old Testament Trinity, c.1425 CE, Tretyakov Gallery,Moscow

Artistic form may be defined; firstly, as being an element of Art. At its most basic, a form is a three-dimensional geometrical figure (i.e.: sphere, cube, cylinder, cone, etc.), as opposed to a shape, which is two-dimensional, or flat. 

© The Wilton Diptych, c. 1395 -99 CE, National Gallery, London

However in a broader sense, form, in Art, means the whole of a piece’s visible elements and the way those elements are united. In this context, form allows one as a viewer to mentally capture the work and understand it.

© Sandro Botticelli, Primavera, c. 1482, Uffizi, Florence

Finally, form refers to the visible elements of a piece, independent of their meaning. For example, when viewing Leonardo’s Mona Lisa, the formal elements therein are: colour, dimension, lines, mass, shape, etc., while the feelings of mystery and intrigue the piece evokes are informal products of the viewer’s imagination.

© Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503 06 CE, Louvre, Paris

“What one doesn’t understand, one can make mean anything.”

Jay Asher

© Georges de la Tour, The Penitent Magdelene, c.1640, Louvre,Paris

“Understanding is not absolutely final. What’s now right could be wrong later.” 

Toba Beta

© Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Swing, 1767 CE, Wallace Collection, London

Click here to read and view more.

https://goffjamesart.wordpress.com

Image Credit © Nebamun Hunting in the Marshes 18th Dynasty, c. 1350 BCE

Source Credithttps://artsandculture.google.com/asset/nebamun-hunting-in-the-marshes-fragment-of-a-scene-from-the-tomb-chapel-of-nebamun/WwExBtEl3-WDgg?ms=%7B%22x%22%3A0.5%2C%22y%22%3A0.5%2C%22z%22%3A8.424196220520326%2C%22size%22%3A%7B%22width%22%3A1.9868466968011123%2C%22height%22%3A1.2374999999999996%7D%7D

Image Credit © Villa of the Mysteries Fresco, (Pompeii, Italy), c.60-50 BCE

Source Credithttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Villa_Mystery_fresco.jpg

Image Credit © The Monogram Page, Book of Kells, c. 800 CE, Trinity College Library, Dublin

Source Credithttps://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/great-works/anonymous-the-chi-rho-from-the-book-of-kells-c800-828951.html

Image Credit © Andrei Rublev, Old Testament Trinity, c.1425 ACE

Source Credit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_(Andrei_Rublev)#/media/File:Angelsatmamre-trinity-rublev-1410.jpg

Image Credit © The Wilton Diptych, c. 1395 -99 CE, National Gallery, London

Source Credithttps://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/english-or-french-the-wilton-diptych

Image Credit © Sandro Botticelli, Primavera, c. 1482, Uffizi, Florence

Source Credithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primavera_(painting)#/media/File:Botticelli-primavera.jpg

Image Credit © Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503 06 CE, Louvre, Paris

Source Credithttps://www.pariscityvision.com/en/paris/museums/louvre-museum/the-mona-lisa-history-and-mystery

Image Credit © Georges de la Tour, The Penitent Magdelene, c.1640, Louvre,Paris

Source Credithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magdalene_with_the_Smoking_Flame#/media/File:Georges_de_La_Tour_-_Magdalen_of_Night_Light_-_WGA12337.jpg

Image Credit © Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Swing, 1767 CE, Wallace Collection, London

Source Credithttps://www.wallacecollection.org/collection/les-hazards-heureux-de-lescarpolette-swing/#&gid=1&pid=1